Prasarana SK Seri Tunjong

Isnin, 8 Februari 2010


Visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eye. The resulting perception is also known as eyesight, sight or vision

The visual system in humans allows individuals to assimilate information from the environment. The act of seeing starts when the lens of the eye focuses an image of its surroundings onto a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye, called the retina. The retina is actually part of the brain that is isolated to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light into neuronal signals. The lens of the eye focuses light on the photoreceptive cells of the retina, which detect the photons of light and respond by producing neural impulses. These signals are processed in a hierarchical fashion by different parts of the brain, from the retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus, to the primary and secondary visual cortex of the brain.

Visual Principles - Design

We have developed a very sophisticated ability to respond and make sense of variety of visual images because of our constant exposure to various media (TV, print, and recently internet). We intuitively know which is a good design and which is not. But, as an designer you need to consciously use this ability. To develop this awareness we need to look at the basic elements of design and understand how they interact with each other to create meaning.

Design Theory: Brief descriptions of the elements of design and principles of design.

eg :

Design a A3 size poster


Software: PhotoShop and Freehand

Hardware: Digital camera

Visual Principles - Colour

Basic colour principles: Introduction to basic colour principles


Love - Inspirational poster


Software: PhotoShop and/or Freehand

Visual Principles - Perception

The Gestalt is a school of psychology which did a lot of ground breaking research in visual perception. The gestalt started some time around 1912 in Germany. The research studies report that the human tendency is to see and remember visual stimuli in the simplest form. As the eye and brain experience an object or environment, they remember the image by grouping visual information according to certain characteristics is known as gestalt principles. Understanding these laws will help us achieve better control and clarity in our design.

source :

Gestalt Principles of Perception


Software: Powerpoint


The primary elements of visual perception are line, shape/form, color, value (light), space, and texture.

Line - In nature, there are no lines per se. Man has created line as the simplest way to communicate visually. Our eyes see boundaries of objects in terms of lines, and we have been taught to draw using line to delineate shape and form. Lines can be long, thin, fat, or ragged. The letters we use in our posters are made up of lines and can be used to visually stimulate a response to the product that is being advertised or promoted.

Shapes are two dimensional spaces defined by a line or other boundaries. There are geometric shapes and organic shapes.

Form adds depth or volume to a shape. So form can be thought of as three-dimensional shapes. On the flat surface of the poster, form is achieved by the use of light and shade (value).

Value refers to light or the absence of light. A black object on a black surface can only be perceived by the amount of light coming from its surface. To show objects on a white poster, it is necessary to create a contrast to the white paper by using various shades of black, gray, and colors.

Color - The properties of color include hue, values, and intensities. Just as value above, these variations of color are necessary to add emphasis, to change mood, and to create visual tension in a poster.

Texture is the tactile quality of visual expression. Texture can be either real or implied and is created by using other elements such as line, color, and value.

Space is the area used to make the design. In most cases, we are talking about the size, shape, and direction of the surface (paper, etc.) used for the poster. This is often referred to as the format for the design. The use of space is very important. One thing is always necessary--using the space provided so that the viewer can easily "read" the message of the poster. That means that there must be a margin around the poster and that the words and images should be clear and the spacing balanced so the viewer's eye can travel through the work to "read" the visual message.


The primary principles are balance, emphasis, and movement (dynamics).

Balance - Gravity is the principal force behind balance. A state of balance is a state of stability. Balance in poster design is similar to the person who is walking, steps in a hole, and shifts her weight to keep from falling. When evaluating a poster design, the artist visually distributes the weight of the art elements so the work achieves visual equilibrium.

There are two types of balance: symmetrical and asymmetrical. In symmetrical balance, one side of the design is like the other side. This is sometimes called formal balance.

Asymmetrical balance is achieved when different elements are distributed on the design surface but the whole still appears to be unified or balanced. Throughout history, certain asymmetrical proportions have been considered to be a visually pleasing solution. One of these is the Golden Mean (the ratio 1:1.6). Any object placed on the Golden Mean (approximately two-fifths of the way down the page--somewhat above the middle of the page) will become the center of interest. Sometimes artists create visual tension by deliberately causing a work to seem unbalanced. It adds interest to the work. Just as a high wire artist appears to lose balance and then regains it to startle the crowd, the visual artist will use seemingly unbalanced elements to bring attention to a special aspect of a poster.

Emphasis is the principle that tells the story. It is the point of the poster. It would be the climax of a short story. Visually, it is the most important message that the designer wants to get across to the audience. Emphasis can be created by contrast, position, size, color, and any number of the other elements.

Movement - Our eyes follow objects in relation to movement in space. This occurs on the limited space of the poster as well. A good example of movement would be the television screen. Each time the camera operator shoots a shot, he or she is making a judgment about the balance and movement in the space you see on your television. If a person is demonstrating something and moves off camera, the audience will not be able to follow the message. The same is true of the poster. While on camera, a person may be demonstrating something too low on the screen or too far to the side to be understood. This can also happen in poster design.

Movement also means the placement of words and images in the poster so that the eye of the viewer is led to the point of emphasis, the main idea.

Expression, which is the creativity, personal perspective, and (in the words of the writing portfolio) voice of the artist, is neither an element nor a principle but the factor in the creative process that personally solves the problem and pleases the audience.

Rubric for Posters

1 - Essential elements are missing from the design and it does not communicate the message. The graphics and/or illustrations do not fit the theme or detract from the message. The composition uses space poorly, with no margins, uneven lettering, and poor spacing of lines. There is no center of interest and the work is not visually balanced. Lines, values, and shapes are of poor quality and do not add to the communication. The craftsmanship is of poor quality and detracts from visual effect. The central message is unclear as a result of the lack of visual design.

2 - The design communicates most elements of the message but some details may be left out. The graphics and/or illustrations do not necessarily fit the theme. The composition does not use the space well but the message is reasonably clear. A center of interest may not be as clear, and the work may not be visually balanced. Lines, values, and shapes are of unsure quality and do not add to the communication. The craftsmanship may be of such quality to detract from visual effect but central message is still present.

3 - The design communicates the message. The graphics and/or illustrations are appropriate to the message. The composition leaves enough negative space around the edges of the poster so that the eye can move around the images. A center of interest is established and the work is visually balanced. Lines, values, and shapes are appropriately clear and add to the communication of the work. The craftsmanship is of adequate quality so as not to detract from the visual effect.

4 - The design clearly and completely communicates the message. A degree of originality is used in the graphics and/or illustrations. The composition leaves enough negative space around the edges of the poster so that the eye can move around the images. A center of interest is established and the work is visually balanced. Lines, values, and shapes are appropriately clear and add to the communication and aesthetics of the work. The craftsmanship is of high quality